Methods of Braille Transcribing


The Braille Transcription Project teaches and transcribes materials utilizing Braille 2000 Braille Translator for Windows.


Our braille transcription project meets or exceeds the standards set forth by the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) and English Unified Braille (UEB) and we are currently teaching and translating using the new standards. We have two very experienced Teachers and another two non-sighted braille proofreaders.


Basic Braille: There are two types of commonly used braille; Grade 1 and Grade 2.


      Grade 1:  This is the most basic form of braille and more of an instructional level than a functional level.  Every letter is                                                             transcribed making the braille document longer.



      Grade 2:  This form of braille uses contractions; or combinations of letters as a single character, and takes up less space on the                            page.  It is the most widely accepted form of braille and is easier for experienced braille readers.


Types of Printing Braille:     

       Large Cell: Large cell Braille writers, which are designed to produce jumbo Braille for individuals who have trouble

distinguishing and learning the dots of ordinary Braille    .jb1  jot-a-dot


Micro-Braille: Very small Braille reader that is portable.


Regular Braille: Most commonly used form of Braille.




Nemeth Code for Mathematics:

Nemeth Braille is just one code used to write mathematics in braille.25_8-200

A New process to the develop a Unified English Braille Code (UEBC), which is now known as UEB (Unified English Braille) has been developed.

How much is braille really changing:

The literary code would be easily read by those familiar with the current braille code. The following list is not comprehensive, but is provided to give a general sense of how literary braille would change:

  • The dot formations of letters and numbers in the literary code would stay the same as they are today.
  • Out of the current 189 contractions, nine would be deleted to make room in the code for greater consistency and less confusion in the representation of other symbols. The nine eliminated contractions are: ally, ation, ble, by, com, dd, into, o’clock, to.

  • Most of the punctuation would remain the same, but some would change; for example, the opening parenthesis would become dots 5, 1-2-6 and the closing parenthesis would be dots 5, 3-4-5. This means that braille, just like print, would have separate and unique symbols to differentiate opening and closing parentheses. The period would be shown as dots 2-5-6 so that, just like in print, the same symbol is used regardless of whether it means full stop, decimal point, or dot.

  • Some symbols, such as asterisk, percent sign, dollar sign, and degree sign, would change. Some of the newer symbols, like copyright, trademark, and crosshatch, would remain the same.

  • The methods of indicating emphasis, such as italics, boldface, or underlining, would be changed. These attributes would not be shown more frequently than they are in current braille, but now a braille reader would be able to distinguish, for example, whether a word is in italics or was underlined.

  • A major limitation of the base literary code we use today is that there is no good way to show the math symbols that sometimes occur in everyday writing and may or may not be related to actual math at all. Operational symbols such as plus and equals that do not currently exist in the literary code would be added.

  • It would no longer be necessary to switch into a special code to read and write web and email addresses.